Drug detox center
Drug treatment is a process with different parts in order to bring a person to a drug and alcohol free life.
Drug Rehab Centers Services will help you find help for drug addiction, rehabilitation and also for detox in the United States. This website will bring you to have a better understanding of the reasons for addiction. Also the different type of programs that are provided and available to you.
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Illegal drug trade info
The illicit drug trade is a global black market consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. The illegality of the black markets purveying the drug trade depends on geographic location, and the producing countries of the drug markets (many South American, Far East, and Middle East countries) are not as inclined to have "zero-tolerance" policies, as the consuming countries of the drug trade (mainly United States and Europe) are. The economic reality of the important profiteering inherent to the drug trade serves to extend its reach in spite of the best efforts of enforcement agencies worldwide. In the wake of this reality, the social consequences (crime, violence, imprisonment, social unrest) of the drug trade are undeniably problematic.
In jurisdictions where legislation restricts or prohibits the sale of certain popular substances, it is usual for an (illegal) drug trade to develop. For example, the United States Congress has identified an amount of controlled substances with corresponding drug trades.Most countries consider drug trafficking a very serious issue. In 1989, the United States intervened in Panama with the intention of disrupting the drug trade coming from Panama. The Indian government has many covert operations in the Middle East and Indian subcontinent to keep a track of several drug dealers. Certain estimates placed the value of the global trade in illegal substances at around US$400 billion in the year 2000; that, added to the global trade value of legal drugs at the same time, totals to an amount higher than the amount of money spent for food in the same period of time. In the 2005 United Nations World Drug Report, the value of the global illegal drug market for the year 2003 was approximated at US$13 bn at the production level, at US$94 billion at the wholesale level, and at US$322bn based on retail prices and taking seizures and other losses into account. Important consumer nations include the United States and European nations, although consumption is world-wide. Major producer countries include Afghanistan (Heroin) and Colombia (primarily Cocaine, but a rising level of Heroin, too).
There are disparities between international trafficking, which involve smuggling across borders, and distribution within the demand country, the latter being generally on a much smaller scale.Techniques used by drug traders when crossing borders include:
A mule is a lower-echelon criminal hired by a smuggling group travel carrying drugs, or occasionally an unknowing person in whose bag or vehicle the drugs are planted, for the purpose of retrieving them elsewhere. They are used to get substances across the borders of countries, but they can also be common in U.S. penitentiaries, where visitors may have every cavity of their body thoroughly searched before they are allowed to enter.
There are two primary ways of distribution: a hierarchy and a hub-and-spoke layout. A hierarchical arrangement means that the manufacturer uses his own men to smuggle, wholesale and store, and distributes the drugs. A hub-and-spoke layout takes advantage of local gangs and other localized criminal groups. The cartel is at the center, with satellite organizations that may provide some services to the manufacturer, and then there is a plurality of distinct organizations, each with its own chain.
Smuggling is also frequently accomplished via small boats and yachts, air vehicles, and by gangs paid with part of the merchandise. Even recreational and purpose-built submarines have been used in the past, but are very barely used because are very rarely arrives at the destination and they run.Occasionally small aircraft are disposed of and destroyed (burnt) right after the unloading process, resulting in e.g. the "aircraft graveyard" in the northern Peten area of Guatemala.
Wholesalers frequently accept the materials from the smugglers (often more than one and of several types), cut it (for obvious reasons of economy, most of all times, adulteration takes place only after the smuggled substance has crossed the last expected border), and sell it to the distribution chain or chains. For the most part, wholesalers are not individual people; it is generally an expansionary endeavor by already-established rogue enterprises, such as Mafias and occasionally local gangs. The chemically more experienced instances may re-manufacture the wares to alter the substance's purity, or altering its chemical composition (such as turning cocaine into crack or freebase). Wholesalers can also manufacture and disseminate general contraband, such as non-narcotic controlled substances (like date rape drugs), paraphernalia (where it can't be legally obtained by head shops or the like), or any panoptic high-demand item that they may receive.
Distribution and adulteration may traverse a selectively chosen organization of cartel employees who purchase from a wholesaler and use a prominent population of mules or it may encompass a heavy chain of users who are selling to finance their own use.
The best known current drug cartels have been the Cali, Medellín, and Norte del Valle cartels in Colombia, and the Juarez, Tijuana, Sonora and Tamaulipas Cartel cartels in Mexico and Puerto Rico. The Mexican cartels are mainly drug trafficking groups that transport and sell cocaine exported by the larger, more powerful Colombian, Bolivian and Peruvian Cartels. The United States invaded Panama in 1989 to remove from power strongman General Manuel Noriega who was allegedly associated with Colombian and Mexican drug cartels, most actively involved with the Medellín Cartel, the most infamous and notorious drug cartel in history. The Medellín Cartel was headed by Pablo Escobar.
Considering the drug business is in several ways like any other business in that the retail has higher profit margins than the producers, and that 80% of the world's cocaine (worth about $25 billion a year) is sold in the United States, it is quite surprising that to date no large U.S.-based cartels have been discovered. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of this money does not return to Latin America but stays in the U.S to be laundered. Transferring large amounts of illegally obtained money to Latin American countries has become even more difficult after 9/11. Certain take the view that more effort needs to be placed on uncovering the country distribution and laundering cartels.
The major organized drug cartels deal mainly with the most compact (thus easy to smuggle) and profitable substances cocaine, heroin, MDMA (ecstasy), and methamphetamine, and it is these that are the primary focus of the United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Large-scale manufactured illicit substances also induce the foundation of satellite organizations that supply some of the most important needed chemical precursors.
In the past ten years, United States Department of Justice (DOJ) statistics show that the percentage of Latin American non-U.S. citizens that were federally arrested in the U.S. for illegal drug offenses has increased from the low 20 percentile to over 30 percent as of 2003. For example, in 1999, considering all federal drug arrests, 26.8% were non-U.S. residents and 45.5% were Hispanic. Other DOJ BJS statistics demonstrated that "additionally to immigration offenses, U.S. attorneys prosecuted an increased number of non-citizens for other crimes, especially for drug trafficking, which increased from 1,799 cases in 1985 to 7,803 in 2000."
Other noteworthy data, according to National Criminal Justice Reference Service: "Of non citizens prosecuted in Federal courts during 1994, 55 percent were in the United States legally. During 1984, about 35 percent of noncitizens prosecuted in Federal courts were charged with a substance offense. By 1994, the proportion charged with a drug offense raised to 45 percent." Trafficking of illicit substances carries the death penalty in some countries. This sign posted at the Chiang Kai-shek International Airport warns passengers disembarking in Taiwan of the potential consequences.
Authorized substances like tobacco can be the subject of smuggling and illegal trading if the price difference between the origin and the destination are high enough to make it profitable.
Certain prescription drugs are also available by illicit means, eliminating the need to manufacture and process the drugs. (Prescription opioids for example, are sometimes much stronger than heroin found on the street, example: the group of the fentanyl analogs.) They are sold either by stolen or partly divided prescriptions sold by medical practices and on occasions from Internet sale. Nonetheless, it is much easier to control traffic in prescription drugs than in illicit drugs because the source is usually an originally legal enterprise and thus can often be readily found and neutralized.
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